Selected Publications

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Afreen Siddiqi and Olivier L. de Weck. Dynamics of Technological Change: The Case of Nuclear Energy and Electric Vehicle Innovation in France. Accepted for publication in International Journal for Innovation and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Publishers, June 2017 (31 pages)

  • Abstract. Technological change is shaped by a confluence of processes that are governed by socio-political, economic, and regulatory factors within a region. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of technology change. Based on a qualitative modeling approach, the authors employ concepts from literature on innovation, technology adoption, and technological change, and map reinforcing and retarding cycles of processes of innovation. The way these processes (or functions) are interconnected and combined hinders or enables the overall success of technology diffusion and shapes the long-term outcome for the new technology. The authors develop the framework with examples of energy systems in UK and UAE, and apply the model to examine two cases of nuclear power and electric vehicles in France. They highlight the role as well as limits of policy in initiating and sustaining reinforcing cycles for new technology diffusion and can provide a basis for forming expectations about emerging technologies.
 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Vivek Sakhrani, Abdullah Alkhenani, Bo Yang Yu, Anas Alfaris, Adnan Alsaati and Olivier de Weck. Model-Based System Design to Support Variability and Flexibility, and Early Bidding Phase of New Procurements. Submitted for publication in IEEE Systems Journal. April 2017. (11 pages)

  • Abstract. A generic design of a complex industrial system allows the reduction of the engineering cost and time to market thanks to the ability to adapt a technical solution given a particular context. We present in this paper a model-based design approach allowing to manage variability and flexibility in design in order to support both near- and long-term decisions. A case study addressing the Solar Desalination combination problem illustrates this approach. The produced models are organized in an open-web decision support system, which governs access to an integrated suite of models. This suite includes computational models for the operations of three desalination and two solar technologies, and a life-cycle investment model, first developed as stand-alone applications and then modularized with the web platform to provide a set of linked models. In addition to assist a collaborative design of solar desalination plants, a possible application of this work is to support a new e-bidding process.
 

Takuto Ishimatsu, Abdulaziz Alhassan, Abdelkrim Doufene, Olivier de Weck, Adnan Alsaati, Kenneth Strzepek, and Anas Alfaris. Large Scale Infrastructure Design Using Evolving Networks. Submitted for publication in Journal of Infrastructure Systems | ASCE Library. June 2017 (27 pages)

  • Abstract. This paper discusses the potential use of graph-theoretic framework in the context of large scale infrastructure design and management. Named as the Interdependent Network Flow with Induced Internal Transformation (INFINIT) model, it can be used to optimize the flow of resources and placement of new facilities (and expansion or retirement of existing facilities) at the individual facility level over multiple dimensions of geographical networks. This model can solve an optimization problem considering both spatial and temporal dimensions: a spatial dimension, where a new infrastructure should be invested at a given time; and a temporal dimension, when a new infrastructure should be invested. We apply the model to study the agriculture water system in Saudi Arabia and evaluate the concept of “Solar Desalination for Agriculture” at a national level. This framework takes into account key performance attributes such as cost, sustainability, optimality, strategic security and robustness as well as the ideal phasing and deployment of the network. These attributes span multiple dimensions such as spatial (network topology), temporal (multiple phases) and technical (available technologies) dimensions.
 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Salma Aldawood, Takuto Ishimatsu, Abdulaziz Alhassan, Abel Sanchez, Anas Alfaris, Adnan Alsaati, and Olivier de Weck. Web-based Collaborative Decision Support System for National Water Policy Planning. Submitted for publication in IEEE Systems Journal, September 2016. (11 pages)

  • Abstract. In this paper, we  introduce a web-based collaborative decision support system (WCDSS) to enable different stakeholders to evaluate  and refine complex scenarios addressing the location, timing, and technology of water and related energy investments across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We start by giving insights on the utility of this WCDSS in the Kingdom and mainly in the framework of a strategic sustainable desalination network project. We present the components of the WCDSS: A GIS-based web interface and its different layers; a common geospatial database; as well as a simulation and optimization engine for scenario analysis purposes. This WCDSS allows participative data collection and interacts with different stakeholders. We present examples of scenario analysis, and conclude with perspectives to enhance this collaborative and interactive web- based decision support system. 

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, and Daniel Krob. A Comprehensive Design Approach for Complex Industrial Systems Architecture and Optimization. Submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems. April 2016 (9 pages).

  • Abstract. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive design approach for complex industrial systems architecture and optimization. We present an architectural design framework, useful to organize and structure all the views that allow the study of a complex system with a holistic approach. Multi-objective and multidisciplinary optimization and equilibrium models support considerably the process of trade-off analysis and decision-making. Data used in these optimization problems are gathered according to the system descriptions following the architectural design framework. This design framework separates clearly between the problem definition space and the solution design space thanks to different abstraction levels. Furthermore, this approach shows the importance of taking into account the life cycles of the system of interest and of the external systems in modeling the optimization problems. The assessment of the life cycle properties highlights parameters that contribute effectively to the integration of the system in its environment. Finally, we underline that simulation can significantly reduce engineering costs and time. We have already illustrated this approach through practical examples related to electric vehicles.  

 

 

Abdulaziz Khiyami, Andrew Owens, Abdelkrim Doufene, Adnan Alsaati, and Olivier de Weck. Assessment of Resilience in Desalination Infrastructure Using Semi-Markov Models. Complex Systems Design & Management (CSDM), Paris, December 2016. Proceedings Science and Engineering series by Springer. pp 125-140, ©2016,DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-49103-5_10 (13 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract. As the supply of desalinated water becomes significant in many countries, the reliable long-term operation of desalination infrastructure becomes paramount. As it is not realistic to build desalination systems with components that never fail, instead the system should be designed with more resilience. To answer the question how resilient the system should be, we present in this paper a quantitative approach to measure system resilience using semi-Markov models. This approach allows to probabilistically represent the resilience of a desalination system, considering the functional or failed states of its components, as well as the probability of failure and repair rates. As the desalination plants are connected with the end-user through water transportation and distribution networks, this approach also enables an evaluation of various network configurations and resilience strategies. A case study addressing a segment of the water system in Saudi Arabia is given with the results, benefits, and limitations of the technique discussed.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Takuto Ishimatsu, Abdulaziz Alhassan, Olivier de Weck, Kenneth Strzepek, Adnan Alsaati. Large Scale Engineering Systems - Insight on Desalination for Agriculture in Saudi Arabia. INCOSE International Symposium, Edinburgh, Scotland. July 2016 (10 pages). Best Paper Award.

  • Abstract. As agriculture water demand in Saudi Arabia is fully met through underground water resources, and their levels of depletion are not sustainable, we evaluate in this paper the concept of “Desalination for Agriculture” at a national level. We discuss a case study and some results using a graph-theoretic framework called the Interdependent Network Flow with Induced Internal Transformation (INFINIT) model. This model can be used to optimize the flow of resources and placement of new facilities (and expansion or retirement of existing facilities) at the individual facility level over multiple dimensions of geographical networks. This model can solve an optimization problem considering both spatial and temporal dimensions: a spatial dimension, that is, where a new infrastructure should be invested at a given time; and a temporal dimension, that is, when a new infrastructure should be invested. We conclude with a set of perspectives.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Vivek Sakhrani, Abdullah Alkhenani, Bo Yang Yu, Stephen Connors, Adnan Alsaati and Olivier de Weck. System Architecture and Optimization to Support Variability and Flexibility in Design. Syscon 2016 IEEE Systems Conference, Florida, USA, April 2016 (6 pages). Full Text

  • Abstract. The coupling of the desalination process with solar technology is a complex problem. As various types of desalination processes and solar technologies have been developed, the selection of the best combination requires several design criteria. Capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, plant site, salinity of seawater, environmental impacts, and water quantity and quality requirements are examples of the design criteria involved in selecting a suitable desalination process. On the other hand, the selection of a suitable solar system is governed by a number of factors such as plant configuration, energy storage, location, working fluids, etc. Moreover, when integrating the solar technology and desalination processes, more requirements and constraints arise. A generic design would reduce the cost of engineering studies and the time to market thanks to the reuse of existing designs, and the ability to adapt a technical solution according to a given context (the best architectures according to a context (both spatial and temporal)). We use a design framework, completed by multi-objective, multidisciplinary optimization models in order to manage variability (space - different locations then different natural environment characteristics mainly sea water quality, solar radiation and dust) and flexibility (time- increase of demand overtime).

 

Takuto Ishimatsu, Abdelkrim Doufene. Abdullah Alawad and Olivier L. de Weck. Desalination Network Model Driven Decision Support System: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia. in The International Desalination Association World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse. San Diego, CA, USA, August 2015 (16 pages)

  • Abstract. This paper presents a network model driven decision system to support well-informed near-term and long-term decisions for the efficient water supplies in Saudi Arabia. Since desalination plants and power plants are increasingly connected together with water pipelines and electricity transmission lines, evaluating a standalone plant as a node in a larger network is compelling. The water/energy network analysis should be able to investigate and identify candidate locations for sustainable desalination plant investments, accounting for the existing assets and the current investment plants. The geographical aspect of individual resource production and distribution can be quantitatively handled by a graph-theoretic approach. Since multiple interacting resources or “commodities” share the same network such as water (potable, non-potable, and waste water) and electricity, this problem is modeled as a multi-commodity network flow problem. In light of the limitations of the classical network flow models, this study employs a new network flow model called the INFINIT (interdependent network flows with induced internal transformation) model. This modeling methodology, with some mathematical modifications to the classical models, can handle a network flow of multiple commodities that interact with each other in many ways including flow transformation (commodity conversion).Based on this network model, a decision support system (DSS) is developed to effectively visualize alternative design and policy scenarios. Currently, two ways of visualization of the results have been developed: a MATLAB-based graphical user interface and a tabletop 3D map projection. The DSS also includes a common database that covers all water and energy data needed for both supply and demand sides. This INFINIT-driven DSS will enable stakeholders to both evaluate and refine complex scenarios addressing the location and timing of water and energy investments.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Daniel Krob. Pareto Optimality and Nash Equilibrium for Building Stable Systems. Syscon 2015 IEEE Systems Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-16, 2015. Proceedings in IEEE Xplore Published in: Systems Conference (SysCon), 2015 9th Annual IEEE International Conference. Page(s): 542 - 545. DOI: 10.1109/SYSCON.2015.7116808. (4 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract. This paper introduces a design approach based on system analysis and game theory for the identification of architectural equilibrium which guarantees the stability of the system being designed and its environment after the integration. We introduce game theory and its links with systems engineering through mathematical models. Nash equilibrium is used to find out architectural equilibrium. This approach was illustrated previously in a case study.

 

Hugo G. Chale-Gongora, Olivier L. de Weck, Abdelkrim Doufene, Takuto Ishimatsu and Daniel Krob. Planning an Itinerary for an Electric Vehicle. IEEE EnergyCon, International Energy Conference, Proceedings in IEEE Xplore 978-1-4799-2448-6/14/ ©2014 IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ENERGYCON.2014.6850603. Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 2014. (7 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract— The steady increase in oil prices and awareness regarding environmental risks due to carbon dioxide emissions are promoting the current interest in electric vehicles. However, the current relatively low driving range (autonomy) of these vehicles, especially compared with the autonomy of existing internal combustion vehicles, remains an obstacle to their development. In order to reassure a driver of an electric vehicle and allow him to reach his destinations beyond the battery capacity, we describe a system which generates an energy plan for the driver. We present in this paper the electric vehicle ecosystem and we focus on the contribution of using the generalized multi-commodity network flow (GMCNF) model as a vehicle routing model that considers energy consumption and charging time in order to ensure the usage of an electric vehicle beyond its embedded autonomy by selecting the best routes to reach the destination with minimal time and/or cost. We also present some perspectives related to the utilization of autonomous electric vehicles and wireless charging systems. We conclude with some open research questions.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Hugo G. Chale-Gongora, Alain Dauron and Daniel Krob. Model-Based operational analysis for complex systems - A case study for electric vehicles. Wiley Online Library - INCOSE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, Las Vegas, July 2014. Volume 24, Issue 1, July 2014, Pages: 122–138, Article first published online : 31 OCT 2014, DOI: 10.1002/j.2334-5837.2014.tb03139.x (16 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract. We present in this paper an operational analysis of a complex system following a Model Based Systems Engineering approach, illustrated by a case study on electric vehicles. We explain some strategic issues and reasons that make electric vehicles important and complex systems, and how these vehicles can significantly contribute to the European policies for sustainable development. We explain why it is necessary to apply a Systems Engineering approach to deal with the complexity of such systems, and we give an overview of the architectural design framework we follow. We present a model of the system of interest and of its environment built from the analysis of public documents and literature reviews. This allowed us to identify the key stakeholders, external interfaces, needs, use cases and operational scenarios. Based on this operational analysis, we present ways to pursue functional and trade-off analyses.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Hugo G. Chale-Gongora, Alain Dauron and Daniel Krob. Un cadre méthodologique intégré pour l'architecture et l'optimisation de systèmes. Not published. 2014 (10 pages)

  • Abstract. Designing complex socio-technical systems is increasingly difficult as the systems increase in size, scope, and complexity. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrated design approach for complex socio-technical systems architecture and optimization. We present an architectural design framework, useful to organize and structure all the views that allow the study of a complex system with a holistic approach. Multi-objective and multidisciplinary optimization and equilibrium models (in the sense of game theory) help considerably during the process of trade-off analysis and decision-making. Data used in these optimization problems are gathered according to the system descriptions following the architectural design framework. The framework separates clearly the problem definition space and the solution design space thanks to different abstraction levels. Furthermore, this approach shows the importance of taking into account the life cycles of the system of interest and of the external systems in modeling the optimization problems. The assessment of the life cycle properties highlights some parameters that contribute effectively to the integration of the system in its environment. Finally, we underline that simulation can significantly reduce engineering costs and time.

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Hugo G. Chale-Gongora and Daniel Krob. Sharing the Total Cost of Ownership of Electric Vehicles: A Study on the Application of Game Theory. Wiley Online Library - INCOSE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, Philadelphia, June 2013. Volume 23, Issue 1, June 2013, Pages: 988–1005, Article first published online : 4 NOV 2014, DOI: 10.1002/j.2334-5837.2013.tb03068.x (18 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract. In this paper, we present the contribution of game theory to the search of architectural equilibrium in the context of complex systems engineering. Our design approach is based on the use of an architectural design framework and of optimization models, illustrated by a practical example in which the system of interest is a commercial electric vehicle in its ecosystem. We rely on systems engineering in order to clearly understand the system we want to study and its environment, during the entire life cycle of the system. For interdependent decisions between stakeholders in the lifecycle of the system, the concept of equilibrium is important. Architectural equilibrium of the system guarantees its integration in its environment, the stability of the environment and the satisfaction of all stakeholders. This is modeled as a game in the sense of game theory leading to a Nash equilibrium, which allows anticipating for changes in an uncertain environment (departure of a stakeholder, arrival of a new actor, changes in requirements or constraints and so on).

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Hugo G. Chale-Gongora and Daniel Krob. Complex Systems Architecture Framework. Extension to Multi-Objective Optimization. Complex Systems Design & Management (CSDM), Proceedings Science and Engineering series by Springer. Pages 105-123, ©2013, DOI 10.1007-978-3-642-34404-6_7, Print ISBN 978-3-642-34403-9. Paris, France, December 2012 (19 pages) Full Text

  • Abstract. This paper shows the utility to follow an architecture framework in order to design complex systems with a holistic approach. Multi-objective Optimization techniques extend and complete the architecture framework to support trade-off analysis and decision making in the Systems Engineering design process. The merging and combination of these two approaches, decision making and systems engineering, contribute to the efficient design of systems by helping to meet needs and constraints stemming mainly from the system analysis.To support this assertion, we present a case study for an Electric Vehicle Powertrain. The decision problem is modeled as a Pareto model, in order to find a solution for the Electric Vehicle Powertrain that maximizes its autonomy and minimizes its total cost of ownership.

 

Working Papers

 

Noura Y. Mansouri, Abdelkrim Doufene. Building a Sustainable Energy System: A case study in nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia and France. Working Paper, abstract submitted for the International BE4 Workshop, 20th-21st April 2015, UCL Energy Institute, January 2015.

  • Abstract. Building a sustainable energy system requires a transition from fossil-based energy systems towards using more renewable energy sources. This paper explores the French successful energy transition since the Seventies and Saudi Arabia’s ambitions and aspirations for a transition towards sustainable energy, with a focus on the nuclear energy sector. The technological innovation systems (TIS) framework describes how actors, technology, institutions, and networks shape and influence the speed and direction of a technological change in a specific technological area. Using this theoretical framework, we discuss how series of reinforcing (or virtuous) cycles have enabled a rapid and vast expansion of nuclear power sector in France. By looking at path dependency and carbon ‘lock-in’ and by using the TIS framework, it is hoped to provide policy recommendations to the Saudi context derived from the lessons learned from the French experience.

 

 

 

Abdullah Alkhenani, Abdullah Alawad, Abdulaziz Alhassan, Abdelkrim Doufene, Anas Alfaris and Olivier de Weck. Thermo-economic analysis of MED-TVC desalination process integrated with solar steam generation system. (18 pages)

  • Abstract. Thermo-economic and performance analysis is performed for multiple effect distillation- thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) process driven by solar thermal energy. The considered configuration of MED process is parallel/cross feed. In this study, solar steam generation system is introduced to provide the required thermal energy in form of steam to two steam ejectors in series of the MED system using boiler heat exchanger. Effects of Variations in parameters, such as, compressed steam temperature and number of effects  on unit product cost ,specific heat transfer area, Gain output ratio, the specific flow rate of the cooling water ,exergy destruction, and Solar field area were investigated as a result (will be after finishing the results and discussion) 

 

 

 

Patents

 

Abdelkrim Doufene, Hoang-Giang Nguyen, Hugo G. Chale-Gongora, Sann Ung and Christophe Dang-Van-Nhan. Patent. Method and device for mission and destination validation for an electric or hybrid vehicle. National Industrial Property Institute (INPI, France) and  European Patent Office (EPO, Europe). 2012. FR 2991277

 

Theses

PhD thesis. Architecture des systèmes complexes et Optimisation. Application aux véhicules éléctriques. Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France. 2013 (180 pages)

CIFRE contract (Conventions Industrielles de Formation par la Recherche - Industrial conventions for training by research)  between the automaker Renault (R&D) and Computer Science Lab @ Ecole Polytechnique (LIX).

  • Abstract. Designing complex socio-technical systems is increasingly difficult as the systems increase in size, scope, and complexity. The purpose of the thesis is to introduce a comprehensive integrated design approach for complex socio-technical systems architecture and optimization. We present an architectural design framework, useful to organize and structure all the views that allow the study of a complex system with a holistic approach. Multi-objective and multidisciplinary optimization and equilibrium models (in the sense of game theory) help considerably during the process of trade-off analysis and decision-making. Data used in these optimization problems are gathered according to the system descriptions following the architectural design framework. The framework separates clearly the problem definition space and the solution design space thanks to different abstraction levels. Furthermore, this approach shows the importance of taking into account the life cycles of the system of interest and of the external systems in modeling the optimization problems. The assessment of the life cycle properties highlights some parameters that contribute effectively to the integration of the system in its environment, ready to deal with variability, flexibility and uncertainty. Finally, we underline that simulation can significantly reduce engineering costs and time.  We illustrate this approach through practical examples related to electric cars. We present the optimization models used for architectural choices and the optimization models used to find an architectural equilibrium, which are different depending on the context and type of decisions being made. The optimization for the choice of architectures, depending on endogenous parameters, is illustrated by a practical example in which the system of interest is the electric powertrain of an electric car. The optimization for architectural equilibrium, depending on endogenous and exogenous parameters, is illustrated by a practical example in which the system of interest is the electric car in its ecosystem. The link between the architectural equilibrium and the choice of architectures is explained. Indeed, some criteria which could contribute to the success of electric cars depend not only on their characteristics, but also on other parameters coming from their environment and associated business models. In order to introduce this new type of vehicles in the market, new services require extending the study to a larger scope mixing the cars and the infrastructure. These cars must be reviewed in the light of their life cycle and their total cost of ownership with a system of systems perspective in the sense that there are many interdependent stakeholders (customers, producers, energy suppliers, regulatory authorities, telecommunication operators, governments, financial institutions, etc.) and enabling systems around the electric cars.

  • Supervisor: Prof. Daniel KROB (Ecole Polytechnique) and  Directeur de recherche at CNRS (France)

  • Industrial Advisors: Dr. Hugo G. CHALE-G. and Dr. Alain DAURON (Renault)

  • Defense committee: Prof. Olivier L. de WECK, MIT (USA), Prof. Vassilis GIAKOUMAKIS, Université d’Amiens (France), Prof. Omar HAMMAMI, ENSTA ParisTech (France), Prof. Sylvain PEYRONNET, Université de Caen (France), Prof. Jacques PRINTZ CNAM (France)

 

Master`s thesis. Collecte de bonnes pratiques d'ingénierie des exigences par les scénarios. Université, Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris, France. 2009 (84 pages)

Six months internship at Renault SAS - Engineering Methods Department.

  • Abstract: This work was done in collaboration between Renault and Université Paris1. The objective is to build a comprehensive framework for the requirements analysis through the study of the system behaviors. Renault was looking for a common model to describe the use cases and behaviors of mechatronic systems, with a natural and understandable form based on the view of the system by the customer. We conducted a literature review and an empirical study to understand the usage of scenarios and use cases in practice at Renault and the expectations of stakeholders, and through analysis of practical cases and interviews. We developed templates and updated the states of the art in this field. The empirical study was a major contribution to understand the new trends and problems encountered in practice.

  • Supervisor: Prof.  Camille SALINESI, Université Paris Panthéon Sorbonne.

  • Industrial Advisor: M. Jean-Vincent QUAREZ (Renault)

  • Defense Committee: Prof. Isabelle COMYN-WATTIAU (ESSEC Business School), Prof. Jacky AKOKA (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers)

 

Engineer`s thesis. Recherche d'information semi-structurée et classification de documents XML. Ecole Supérieure d'Informatique - ESI, ex INI. Algeria, 2008 (124 pages)

  • Abstract: The objective is to build a methodology and software for the classification of XML documents. The purpose is to group similar documents in same classes in order to increase the quality and speed of the search process. We proposed an XML document clustering system - IFCLUST, based on a new indexation model « annotated DataGuide with a content index». Different Data mining techniques were compared. The k-means algorithm was adapted and implemented.

  • Co-author: Allab Kamel (Currently Engineer in a French Company)

  • Supervisor: Dr. Fouad DAHAK (Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Informatique, ex INI, Algeria)

  • Defense Committee: Dr. Yacine AIT ALI YAHIA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Informatique, ex INI, Algeria)

  •